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Body Fat Reduction

Body Fat Reduction

The Best Ways to loose Body Fat


By: Clayton South

Are you unhappy with the way you look? When looking in the mirror do you find an unsettling image being reflected back at you? Have you tried all of the products in the ads but with limited success? Are you confused as to what method is best for losing body fat? You are not alone.

 Every year millions of people around the world go on and off various diets, take various "mineral packs", drink apple cider vinegars, swallow diet pills, use "fat sucking body wraps" and spend billions of dollars in the vain attempt to lose unwanted fat. What they do not realize, however, is the utter futility of their efforts.

In the article Bodybuilding: Its true nature! Bodybuilding was shown to be a physical endeavor. Consequently bodybuilding operates on scientifically determined physiological principles.

Accordingly, this article aims to present logical principles regarding fat loss in an articulate manner, so as to eliminate confusion and replace confounding myth and propaganda with principles of reality.

Main Elements

The main features of a sound fat loss program are:

At the end of this article you will be armed with all three, and will have the knowledge on how to construct your own plan [as opposed to simply hearing what has worked for someone else].


When aiming to reduce body fat levels, the management of macronutrients is crucial. The macronutrients are protein, fat and carbohydrates. Below is a brief description of each macronutrient and its respective function within the body.


Macronutrient Physiological Function Types / Sources
Protein ˇ Muscular Repair
ˇ Boosting Immune System Functioning
ˇ Prevent Catabolism
ˇ 4.5 calories p/gm
ˇ Fat Burning
ˇ Whey
ˇ Caesin
ˇ Egg
ˇ Animal
ˇ Soy [Plant]
Fat ˇ Energy Source
ˇ Boosting Immune System Functioning
ˇ 9 calories p/gm
ˇ Good [Mono]
ˇ Bad [Poly]
Carbohydrates ˇ Energy Source
ˇ Preventing Catabolism
ˇ Insulin Regulation
ˇ 4.5 calories p/gm
ˇ Simple Sugars
ˇ Complex Starches

As may be seen from the chart, each macronutrient performs different functions within the body. Understanding the differing functions of each macronutrient will allow for the construction of a sensible goal-oriented diet plan that will increase the desired event [probable outcome].


Bodybuilding is an activity that operates according to scientific principles and science is mathematically based. Thus, bodybuilding is mathematically based. Accordingly, in the construction of a diet plan, mathematics and numbers are key. Throughout the article you will see various mathematical formulae. These will be helpful to you when constructing your plan.

Diet Plan Requirements

To construct a diet plan several variables need to be mathematically determined.

These variables are:

I shall now briefly discuss each.

Body Mass

Many fat loss programs are geared toward "lean mass" or your body mass minus the total mass of fat you have. This plan is geared toward your total body mass. The best time to determine your body mass is first thing in the morning upon rising when, presumably, your stomach is devoid of its contents. For purposes of the example scenario later in the article, your total body mass is 233 pounds.

Age And Basal Metabolic Rate

The rate of your metabolism is directly correlated to your age. With every passing decade the metabolism slows by 10%. This translates into a 1% decrease in metabolic rate per year. Therefore, as people age and fail to change eating habits, they often gain unwanted body fat. Somehow it never occurs to people that as their metabolism slows, so should their eating decrease by a proportionate amount.

Calculating your basal metabolic rate (BMR) will allow you to determine with precision the amount of calories your body requires to maintain its current mass.

The key, then, after determining your BMR is to construct your fat loss program so that through a gradual reduction in calories over time, you end up consuming fewer calories than you burn. For purposes of the example scenario later in the article, your age is 21 and your basal metabolic rate is 2700 calories.

Caloric And Macronutrient Intake

As mentioned, the goal of a fat loss program is to be consuming fewer calories over time than is burned by the body. However, because the body is extremely adaptable and prefers homeostasis, TIME, CALORIES and MACRONUTRIENTS are the independent variables that must be manipulated so that the dependant variable [fat loss] can occur.

Due to the bodies preference for homeostasis, but the requirement that caloric intake remains steady for specific time periods during the 71 day fat loss program, macronutrients must be cycled on a daily basis. This will prevent the body from adapting. Meal frequency is vitally important to losing unwanted fat, and it is recommended that eating occur every two hours. Eating clean whole foods is recommended over processed manufactured goods.

Bodyfat Percentage

 Measuring ones ratio of adipose tissue to lean muscle mass is crucial and is a general measurement of health. With a measurement of adipose to muscle, one can determine if mass lost during a fat loss program is muscle or fat. If it is determined that muscle was lost, macronutrient percentages may be adjusted to compensate. For purposes of the example scenario later in the article your BF is 13%.

Weight Training Regimen

A weight-training regimen is very important in the quest to reduce overall mass attributable to adipose tissue. A high intensity program [no longer than 45 minutes] is recommended. A high intensity weight program will lead to increased oxygen use and more watts being used as the work is done over a decreasing time period. This will raise body temperature and therefore burn more calories.

Cardiovascular Regimen

Cardiovascular exercise when used in conjunction with dietary modification will optimize fat loss. Cardiovascular work should have an intensity factor that will burn fat but preserve lean muscle tissue. The frequency of cardiovascular exercise performed increases over time, although the intensity level varies marginally over the same period.


Macronutrient Cycle
As Percentage Of Daily Caloric Intake

Daily Calories*: 3495 cal
Macronutrient Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Day 6 Day 7
Protein 32.5% 32.5% 42.5% 55% 27% 27% 32.5%
Carbohydrates 52.5% 52.5% 32.5% 25% 67% 67% 52.5%
Fat 17.5% 17.5% 27% 27% 12.5% 12.5% 17.5%

* To determine daily caloric intake multiply body mass by 15.

In this chart, each macronutrient assumes a different percentage of the overall caloric intake on differing days. Although values for macronutrient percentages vary, caloric intake remains steady and is only changed according to the next graph listed. To find the exact macronutrient values for different foods, consult resources such as The Complete Book Of Food Counts By Corinne T. Netzer.

To determine the calories required from each macronutrient on each day, use the following calculation.

Protein requirement calculation for day 1:



C = Calories [3495]
P= Protein [32.5%]
C = Carbohydrates [52.5%]
F = Fat [17.5%]


P = C(.325)
P = 3495(.325)
P = 1135

Therefore, of the daily totals, 1135 calories derive from protein.

To determine how many grams of a macronutrient are derived from the calories from the total [as determined by using the above calculation], use the following calculation. Protein will be our example.


P = Calories from Protein [1135]
CPG = Calories per gram of macronutrient [4.5]
GFP = Grams from protein [x]


GFP = 1135 / 4.5
GFP = 252.2

Therefore, from 1135 calories from protein, 252.2 grams of protein is the requirement for day 1 on the macronutrient cycle. To determine how many grams per meal will be protein, after the above calculation is performed, divide the answer by 6 [because you will be eating 6 meals per day].

The above calculation may be used to determine fat requirements as well as carbohydrate requirements. Simply substitute the required variables in the appropriate fields to obtain the desired value.


Calorie Reduction Over 11 Day Periods
Days 1-11 12-23 23-35 36-47 48-59 60-71
Calories 3495 3195 2895 2595 2295 1995

In this chart caloric intake should be reduced by 300 calories every 11 days. The chart is self-explanatory and as such requires no mathematical formulae to demonstrate its practical application.

Now on to the workouts...

Cardiovascular Workout Plan


Cardiovascular Frequency By 7 Day Periods
Week # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Frequency 2x 3x 3x 3x 3x 4x 4x 4x 4x 5x
Intensity 45% 50% 50% 55% 55% 55% 55% 60% 60% 65%

To determine intensity percentage you must calculate your maximum heart rate. To do this the use the following calculation:


A = Age
MHR = Maximum Heart Rate


220 - A = MHR
220 - 21 = 199

Simple Target Heart Rate Calculator

Using the 220 - Age formula.


Enter Your Age - Then press Calculate.
Heart Rate
Heart Rate per minute
(75% - 85% of Max)
Heart Rate
15 sec count


The Karvonnen formula is more advanced since it also takes into account your resting heart rate. This is your heart rate at complete rest. To determine this, take your pulse for 60 seconds just before you get out of bed... or take it for 30 seconds and multiply by 2.

Therefore the maximum heart rate would be 199 for the subject. If we wanted to determine the heart rate needed to be working at a level of 45% intensity, the calculation would appear as follows:


MHR = Maximum Heart Rate
BMP = Beats per minute
.45 = Intensity Level at 45% Of Maximum


BPM = .45(MHR)
BPM = .45(199)
BPM = 89.55

Advanced Target Heart Rate Calculator
Using the Karvonen Formula.

Your Age in Years
Resting Heart Rate
% of Maximum Effort
Your Target Heart Rate


Therefore, working at 45% intensity level, beats per minute value is 89.55

The calculation provided may be used to determine intensity required throughout the program.

The mathematical formula provided will assist you in determining:


Weight Training Regimen

Constructing an appropriate weight-training regimen to augment a fat-loss program can be confusing. Therefore it is important to keep several realities in mind:

Therefore, with these realities in mind, it is wise to incorporate more cable movements into ones workout. In the article The Ultimate Mass Building Workout I recommended the following training split:

Day 1: Deltoids, Triceps
Day 2: Trapezius, Back
Day 3: OFF
Day 4: Legs, Forearms
Day 5: Chest, Biceps
Day 6: OFF
Day 7: OFF

For a workout to contribute to fat loss, but not to overtraining, one must limit the time one spends working out. It is recommended that a weight-training workout last no longer than 45 minutes.

The split I recommended in The Ultimate Mass Building Workout is also recommended here. Where this program differs is in the amount of exercises done, and exercise type.

The purpose of a fat loss program is to rid oneself of unsightly fat that blocks the ability to see the true shape and size of a muscle. Therefore, the predominant exercises in this program will be tailored to slow-twitch muscle fibers. Therefore I recommend that for each body part one compound movement be performed, augmented by two isolation movements. The sample workout provided would be for day 1 and would appear as follows:





The repetition range should be high, and the weights performed should be according to 70%-75% of your 1 repetition maximum. To determine your 1 repetition maximum use a 1RM calculator.

 The emphasis is not on compound movements, but on isolation movements, working at high repetitions. This is because although fast-twitch fibers are not to be neglected, the emphasis is placed upon slow-twitch fibers. We want to bring out the maximum amount of definition and separation in the muscles we are working. To do this, pumping a large amount of blood into them is needed. High repetitions accomplish this if the exercises are performed correctly.

After The 71 Days Of Dieting

On this program one subject reduced his body fat levels by 6% over the course of the 71-day period. However, what should be done if after the 71-day program your body fat levels are still higher than you would like? If you find yourself in this situation, I recommend the following:


After the 4-week break is up, go back on the 71-day program using the provided calculations to calculate caloric intake, macronutrient requirements and BMR. Repeat this cycle until your body fat level is where you want it.

Summary / Conclusion

A sound fat loss program consists of a sound dietary, cardiovascular and weight-training regimen. The soundness of each component is predicated upon each variables adherence to mathematical formulae and scientific principles. By employing the mathematical principles presented, and by using mathematics to construct a fat loss program substantial changes in body composition over time may be elicited.

So here it is: The Ultimate Mass Building Workout. Use it to the letter, follow the above advice, and get ready to buy some new shirts.

The Ultimate Mass Building Workout:


Training Schedule

Monday: Shoulders, Triceps
Tuesday: Back, Traps
Wednesday: OFF
Thursday: Legs
Friday: Chest, Biceps
Saturday: OFF
Sunday: OFF

Monday - Day 1

Shoulders Sets & Reps
Clean and Press 1x12*, 1x8*, 1x6
Seated Shoulder Press (d.bell) 1x10*, 1x6, 1x4
Cable Lateral Raises 1x10*, 1x8, 1x8

Triceps Sets & Reps
Triceps Pressdowns (v-bar) 1x25*, 1x12*, 1x10
Skull Crushers 1x10*, 1x6, 1x4
Tricep Extensions 1x12, 1x10, 1x10

* Denotes warm-up set

Tuesday - Day 2

Back Sets & Reps
Deadlifts 1x10*, 1x8*, 1x6
T-Bar Rows 1x12*, 1x10*, 1x8
Bent Rows 1x12*, 1x10*, 1x8

Traps Sets & Reps
D. Bell Shrugs 1x12-15*, 1x 10*, 1x6
Behind Back B. Bell Shrugs 1x12*, 1x8, 1x8


* Denotes warm-up set

Thursday - Day 4

NOTE: 5 minutes of light cardio before hand to warm up knees.

Legs Sets & Reps
Leg Extensions 1x25*, 1x15*, 1x12*
Stiff Legged Deadlifts 1x15*, 1x12*, 1x10
Squats 1x12*, 1x10*, 1x6, 1x4
Leg Presses 1x12*, 1x10*, 1x8, 1x8
Leg Extensions 1x8, 1x8, 1x8
Hamstring Machine Curls 1x12*, 1x10, 1x10
Calf Raises 1x15*, 1x10, 1x10, 1x10

* Denotes warm-up set


Friday - Day 5

Chest Sets & Reps
Incline Bench Press 1x15*, 1x10, 1x8
Flat Bench Press 1x12*, 1x8, 1x6
D. Bell Flyes 1x12*, 1x8, 1x6

Biceps Sets & Reps
Seated D. Bell Curls 1x15*, 1x12, 1x10, 1x8
Standing B. Bell Curls 1x12, 1x8, 1x6

*Denotes warm-up set

As the reps decrease over the sets listed, the poundage's should increase. For example, if doing 25lbs for 15 reps of seated dumbbell curls for warm-up, for the next set of 12 reps the weight may increase to 30lbs. As always, be sure to use proper form and full range of motion for all sets and exercises listed.

NO CARDIO IS TO BE DONE AT ALL DURING THE TIME YOU ARE ON THIS PROGRAM, except the cardio listed for the leg workout. No cardio does not mean "just a little" or "some" - it means NONE AT ALL, except where specifically indicated. Workouts should last no longer than 45 minutes.

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